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This is not a simple preference for complementarity, however, because dominant females do not seek out submissive males. Support for general exchange theories, on the other hand, has been clearer. Although symmetry is attractive in both men and women, small noses and relatively smaller jaws are relatively more attractive in women, and medium noses and large jaws are attractive in men (Cunningham, Druen, and Barbee 1997). "mate assortment in dating and married couples." personality and individual differences 7–221.kenrick, d. A small waist-to-hip ratio is attractive in a woman, but not in a man (Singh 1995). "dominance, prosocial orientation, and female preferences: do nice guys really finish last? Although support for personality complementarity was not abundant, there is some degree of cross-sex complementarity in preferred traits. For example, females emphasize social dominance in their partners more than males do (Sadalla, Kenrick, and Vershure 1987). The discussion below begins with research and theory focused on proximal causes, or immediate psychological triggers of mate choice (such as pleasant feelings in response to seeing a physically attractive other), and moves through progressively more distal factors (relationship exchange, cultural and historical factors, and evolutionary history). Like the single frames, scenes, and overall plot of a movie, these different approaches are complementary, and all are required to see the "big picture" of mate selection. "age differences between spouses in a brazilian marriage sample." evolution and human behavior 20(2):99–103.sadalla, e.
In considering how and why people choose mates, therefore, two points are significant: (1) there are variations as well as universalities across cultures, and (2) there is a distinction between selection of mates for short-term relationships versus long-term relationships. "dominance and heterosexual attraction." journal of personality and social psychology 52(4):30–738.shepher, j.
The assumption was that a person is attracted to potential mates who make that person feel good. "evolution, traits, and the stages of human courtship: qualifying the parental investment model." journal of personality –117.murstein, b. "stimulus-value-role: a theory of marital choice." journal of marriage and the family 5–481.otta, e.; da silva queiroz, r.; de sousa campos, l.; da silva, m.
Researchers in this tradition focused on overt characteristics such as physical appearance and the expression of similar attitudes and values (Byrne 1971).
A second wave of mate selection theories emphasized processes of dyadic exchange of costs and benefits. beverly hills, ca: sage publications.harpending, h.
The most prevalent models emphasize social exchange: I seek a mate who brings a mix of assets and liabilities with comparable value to my own personal portfolio (e.g., Hatfield et al. Researchers focusing on reciprocal exchange have emphasized naturalistic studies of mate choice in relationships as they unfold over time (e.g., Cate, Huston, and Nesselroade 1986).